Have you ever had a romantic attraction to a female? The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation[ edit ] The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation SASO was developed to address the major concerns with the Kinsey Scale and Klein Sexual Orientation Grid and as such, measures sexual orientation on a continuum, considers various dimensions of sexual orientation, and considers homosexuality and heterosexuality separately. Additionally, the Pan American Health Organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements. This differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT. Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment. Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences.
The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation[ edit ] The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation SASO was developed to address the major concerns with the Kinsey Scale and Klein Sexual Orientation Grid and as such, measures sexual orientation on a continuum, considers various dimensions of sexual orientation, and considers homosexuality and heterosexuality separately. Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that as adults everyone still has desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures. Valuable information was lost by collapsing the two values into one final score. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. It would have been quite simple for Kinsey to have measured the two dimensions separately and report scores independently to avoid loss of information. Additionally, the Pan American Health Organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements. However, the scale has been criticized because it is still not a true continuum. According to this theory, all humans are born bisexual in a very broad sense of the term, that of incorporating general aspects of both sexes. A third concern with the Kinsey scale is that it inappropriately measures heterosexuality and homosexuality on the same scale, making one a tradeoff of the other. The American Psychiatric Association stated: As there is no research indicating which of the three components is essential in defining sexual orientation, all three are used independently and provide different conclusions regarding sexual orientation. Berlin sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld published a scheme in that measured the strength of an individual's sexual desire on two independent point scales, A homosexual and B heterosexual. However, research suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation. This is addressed by the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. Biology and sexual orientation Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including genes , prenatal hormones , and brain structure. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior, the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex. Individuals have more than incidental homosexual experience or respond rather definitely to homosexual stimuli. Klein Sexual Orientation Grid In response to the criticism of the Kinsey scale only measuring two dimensions of sexual orientation, Fritz Klein developed the Klein sexual orientation grid KSOG , a multidimensional scale for describing sexual orientation. An individual can be assigned a position on the scale in accordance with the following definitions of the points of the scale: In a major study comparing sexual response in homosexual males and females, Masters and Johnson discuss the difficulty of assigning the Kinsey ratings to participants. It is assumed that these scales will be able to reliably identify and categorize people by their sexual orientation. However, results can be further simplified into four summaries that look specifically at responses that correspond to either homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality or asexuality. The Kinsey scale provides a classification of sexual orientation based on the relative amounts of heterosexual and homosexual experience or psychic response in one's history at a given time. Individuals have more overt activity or psychic reactions in the homosexual while still maintaining a fair amount of heterosexual activity or responding rather definitively to heterosexual contact. Even though the research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality, regardless of sexual orientation identity , the task force concluded that the population that undergoes SOCE tends to have strongly conservative religious views that lead them to seek to change their sexual orientation. The position on the scale is based on the relation of heterosexuality to homosexuality in one's history, rather than the actual amount of overt experience or psychic response. Individuals are about equally homosexual and heterosexual in their experiences or psychic reactions.
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