Individuals with low desire may report no sexual cognitions—fantasies or other pleasant, arousing sexual thoughts and mental images. These data replicate earlier research by Hoon and Hoon with a nondysfunctional sample. On this item measure, women rate their sexual arousal for a variety of erotic and explicit sexual behaviors. These behaviors are presumably not due to strong negative responses to interpersonal or genital contact, an important point to consider when ruling out alternatives, specifically a sexual aversion disorder see Discussion; for an early example of the absence of distinction, see McCarthy, In the DSM—IV, sexual aversion is defined as persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, all or almost all, genital contact with a sexual partner. Some extreme, negative reactions have been termed sexual aversions. Finally, it is also possible that the sending of unsolicited explicit images is associated with a false-positive bias when interpreting sexual intent e. Related data from Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, and Michaels indicate a normal distribution in the frequency of autoerotic activities e.
Thus, if sending unsolicited explicit images is a sexually deviant behavior, then we expect that individuals with higher levels of dark personality traits particularly psychopathy and sadism will be more inclined to engage in this behavior. Hormone—sexual behavior relationships for women are less clear, although estrogen, progesterone, and androgen testosterone have been studied. In the DSM—IV, sexual aversion is defined as persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, all or almost all, genital contact with a sexual partner. Finally, testosterone may have direct effects on sexual functioning; both Bancroft and Wu and Schreiner-Engel, Schiavi, Smith, and White have found positive relationships between testosterone levels and frequency of masturbation and vaginal responses to erotic stimuli. In contrast, the SAS assesses self-reported avoidance of sexual activities and negative emotionality about sex, including worry, self-consciousness, and self-criticism. Other changes include increases in heart rate and blood pressure and deeper, more rapid respiration. A classic experiment provided evidence for this notion. For these reasons, we consider anxiety as well as a broad band of other affects that may be relevant to discriminate from excitement processes for assessment. These data have been interpreted as indicating that arousal, accompanied by a plausible labeling of the arousal as love or at least attraction , seems to be one basis for passionate love see Sternberg, , for a related discussion. This effect, preexposure to an anxiety-provoking stimulus increasing subsequent VBV during erotica, has also been replicated Palace, in press. The subjective experience of orgasm includes feelings of intense pleasure with a peaking and rapid, exhilarating release. In terms of self-descriptions, individuals with low desire may have an asexual self-view. The bodily changes with sexual excitement are considerable. The aim of the current study was to establish the utility of dark personality traits i. Considering the other channels for assessment, cognitions have been emphasized. One strategy has been to have participants rate their sexual desire and then correlate these data with other indicators, such as sexual arousal or behavior e. As the men walked across the bridge, they were met by a research assistant, who was either male or female and who asked the participant to answer a few questions and to tell a story based on a picture. Individuals with low desire may report no sexual cognitions—fantasies or other pleasant, arousing sexual thoughts and mental images. This model seeks to connect cognitive—affective responses with control of genital and peripheral indications of sexual excitement through a neurophysiological substrate for sexual arousal. However, there is evidence for their convergent validity. She defined anxiety as a negative feeling of tension or nervousness and used the SAI items but changed the anchors for the rating scale 7-point Likert scale ranging from — 1 [relaxing] to 5 [extremely anxiety provoking]. Although these lines of data suggest some importance to the role of fantasy, there are not data at present suggesting that the absence of fantasy is pathognomic for low sexual desire. In contrast, progesterone may actually have an inhibitory effect Bancroft, The positive association between dark traits of personality and sexually exploitative behavior could extend to sending unsolicited explicit images, which have previously been defined as a form of online sexual harassment Vitis and Gilmour, Psychodynamic hypotheses emphasize fears of phallic-aggressive impulses, castration, rivalry, or incestuous object choices Janssen,
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